According to the most authoritative legends, the history of the Vietnamese people begins with King De Minh, a descendant of a divine Chinese ruler who was also the legendary father of Chinese agriculture. De Minh and an immortal fairy of the mountains produced Kinh Duong, ruler of the Land of Red Demons, who married the daughter of the Dragon Lord of the Sea. Their son, Lac Long Quan ("Dragon Lord of Lac"), is regarded as the first authentic Vietnamese king. To make peace with the Chinese, Lac Long Quan married Au Co, a Chinese immortal, who bore him 100 eggs, from which sprang 100 sons. Later, the king and queen separated; Au Co moved with 50 of her sons into the mountains, and Lac Long Quan kept the other 50 sons and continued to rule over the lowlands. Lac Long Quan's eldest son succeeded him as the first of the Hung (or Hong Bang) kings (vuong), and he is regarded as the real founder of the Vietnamese nation and of the first Vietnamese dynasty.
This legend and other related legends, most of which received their literary form only after AD 1200, describe in mythical terms the fusion, conflicts, and separation of peoples from the north and south and of peoples from the mountains and the coastal lowlands. The legends show the immortals as mountain dwellers, while the people along the coast are represented by the dragon lords--a division found in many legends throughout Southeast Asia. The retreat of Au Co and 50 of her sons into the mountains may well be a mythical record of a separation among the proto-Vietnamese in the Red River delta: those who left the lowlands could be the ancestors of the Muong, who still live in the hills surrounding the delta and who are the only ethnic minority of Vietnam closely related in language and customs to the Vietnamese.
According to legend, the Hung dynasty had 18 kings, each of whom ruled for about 150 years. Their country, called Van Lang ("Land of the Tattooed Men"), is said to have included not only the Red River delta but also much of southern China. The last of the Hung kings was overthrown in 258 or 257 BC by a neighboring warlord, Thuc Phan, who invaded and conquered Van Lang, united it with his kingdom, and called the new state Au Lac, which he then ruled under the name An Duong. Au Lac existed only until 207 BC, when it was incorporated by a former Chinese general, Trieu Da (Chao T'o in Chinese), into the kingdom of Nam Viet (Nan Yüeh in Chinese).
This kingdom covered much of southern China and was ruled by Trieu Da from his capital near the present site of Canton. Its population consisted chiefly of the Viet who had earlier been driven by the Chinese from their kingdoms south of the Yangtze River. Trieu Da, after throwing off Chinese sovereignty and killing all officials loyal to the Chinese emperor, adopted the customs of the Viet and made himself the ruler of a vast non-Chinese empire. After it had incorporated Au Lac, Nam Viet included not only the Red River delta but also the coastal lands as far south as modern-day Da Nang. The end of Au Lac in 207 BC marks the end of legendary history and the beginning of Vietnamese history, as recorded in Chinese historical annals.
After almost 100 years of diplomatic and military duels between the Han Chinese empire and Trieu Da and his successors, Nam Viet was conquered (111 BC) by the Chinese under the Han emperor Wu-ti. Thus, the territories occupied by the ancestors of the Vietnamese fell under Chinese rule. Nam Viet became the Chinese province Giao Chi (later Giao Chau), which was divided into nine military districts. The three southernmost of these covered the northern half of what is now Vietnam.
When China extended its rule over Vietnam, the people of the Red River delta were in transition from the Bronze to the Iron Age, although some stone implements were also still in use. These ancestors of the Vietnamese were already experienced at cultivating rice. They had learned how to irrigate their rice fields by using the tides that backed up the rivers. Plows and water buffalo were still unknown (the land was prepared for cultivation with polished stone hoes), but the proto-Vietnamese are thought to have been able to produce two rice crops annually. They supplemented their diet by fishing and hunting. Their weapons were mainly bows and arrows; the bronze heads of their arrows often were dipped in poison to facilitate killing such larger animals as elephants, whose tusks were traded for iron from China.
The social organization of the early Vietnamese, before Chinese rule, was hierarchical, forming a kind of feudal society that until the mid-20th century existed among the Tai and Muong minority populations of northern Vietnam. Power was held by tribal chiefs at the head of one or several communities. These chiefs were civil, religious, and military leaders, and their power was hereditary; they were large landowners who kept the mass of the people in virtual serfdom. At the head of this aristocracy stood the king, probably the most powerful of the tribal chiefs.
Religion was characterized by the kind of animistic beliefs in supernatural beings and spirits that are common among preliterate agricultural and hunting peoples. Some of the spirits were those of dangerous animals, while others were of deceased important persons who needed to be propitiated. A great religious festival, almost a carnival, was held at the beginning of spring and was marked by abandon and promiscuity.
In all these respects, the inhabitants of the Red River delta, prior to their subjugation by the Chinese, showed numerous affinities with most of the people of mainland and island Southeast Asia. It was not until several centuries after the imposition of Chinese rule that the Vietnamese developed more distinct ethnic characteristics.
The history of the Vietnamese people under more than a millennium of Chinese rule reveals an evolution toward national identity, which apparently came about as the result of three developments. The first of these was the introduction into the Red River delta of the more advanced civilization of China, including technical and administrative innovations and the more sophisticated level of Chinese learning, which made the Vietnamese the most advanced people of mainland Southeast Asia. The second was the efforts of the Chinese governors to achieve complete Sinicization through the imposition of Chinese culture, customs, and political institutions. The third and most significant development during this period was the resistance of the Vietnamese people to total assimilation and the use they made of the benefits derived from Chinese civilization in their struggle against Chinese political rule.
Soon after extending their domination over what is now northern Vietnam, the Chinese constructed roads, waterways, and harbors to facilitate communications within the region and to ensure that they maintained administrative and military control over it. They improved local agriculture by introducing better methods of irrigation and the use of metal plows and draft animals. They brought with them new tools and weapons, advanced the art of pottery, and used new mining techniques. For more than a century after annexing Nam Viet, however, the Chinese abstained from interfering with the local administration. In the Chinese province of Giao Chau, the hereditary lords exercised control over the peasant population, just as they had done while Giao Chau was a province of Nam Viet. Thus, although Vietnam was divided into military districts headed by Chinese governors, it remained, in fact, a leniently governed Chinese protectorate.
This form of government changed in the 1st century AD, when an energetic governor realized that the sway of the local Viet lords over the population was an obstacle to Sinicization. The desire to exploit the fertile Red River delta and its mountainous backcountry was certainly one reason why the expansionist Han dynasty wanted to hold on to Vietnam: there were vast forests and precious metals in the mountains, pearls in the sea, elephants with tusks of ivory, and a peasantry that could be taxed and recruited for forced labor. China's main interest in holding the Red River delta, however, was its value as an important stopover for ships engaged in the Han dynasty's nascent maritime trade with the East Indies, India, and even the Middle East. Vessels from many countries with which China developed commercial relations docked at the harbors of the Vietnamese coast, not only bringing new goods but also establishing contacts with a wider world and thus promoting the development of the country. In this process, which began early in the 1st century AD, economic, cultural, and political functions developed that the hereditary local lords were unfit to discharge--another reason why direct Chinese rule through the importation of an increasing number of Chinese officials became necessary.
As in all regions conquered by the Chinese Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 221, with a brief interruption in AD 8-23), efforts to set up direct Chinese rule were accompanied by a variety of attempts to transform the people of the Red River delta into Chinese. Local customs were suppressed, and Chinese customs, rites, and institutions were imposed by force. Taoist and Confucian teachings were pressed, together with instruction in the Chinese language; even Chinese clothing and hairstyles became obligatory. Many of these Chinese innovations were beneficial to the Vietnamese and were readily integrated into the indigenous local culture, but Sinicization never succeeded in reconciling the Vietnamese people, especially their leaders, with Chinese political domination. Not only the masses of the people but even the educated Vietnamese who knew Chinese and wrote only in Chinese held on to the local spoken language.
The first major rebellion against Chinese rule broke out in AD 40, led by the noblewoman Trung Trac, whose husband, a tribal lord, had been executed by the Chinese. She and her sister, Trung Nhi, gathered together the tribal chiefs and their armed followers, attacked and overwhelmed the Chinese strongholds, and had themselves proclaimed queens of an independent Vietnamese kingdom. Three years later a powerful army sent by the Han emperor reestablished Chinese rule; the local aristocracy was deprived of all power, Vietnam was given a centralized Chinese administration, and Sinicization was resumed with increased intensity. The Trung sisters apparently were put to death by their conquerors.
Chinese rule, although challenged several more times, remained secure so long as China itself was effectively controlled by its own emperors. When the T'ang dynasty (618-907) fell into decay in the early 10th century, a series of uprisings broke out in Vietnam, which led in 939 to the restoration of Vietnamese independence.
Ngo Quyen, the Vietnamese commander who had defeated the Chinese in 939, became the first head of the new state of Vietnam. For more than a half century, however, independence brought neither peace nor political stability to Vietnam. In the early 11th century, Vietnam finally was brought together under a centralized administration by Ly Thai To, the founder of the Ly dynasty (sometimes called the Later Ly dynasty; 1009-1225). The Ly rulers established their capital at Hanoi, in the heart of the Red River delta, modernized the agricultural system, and replaced the divisive local lords with a system of state officials trained in a civil service institute set up on the Chinese model in 1076.
Although the new state, called Dai Viet, made considerable political, economic, and cultural progress, it soon encountered problems with its neighbor to the south, the Islamic, Indianized state of Champa on the central coast. Dai Viet and Champa fought several wars in the 12th and 13th centuries. Dai Viet also clashed with the Khmer (Cambodian) state of Angkor, then the greatest power in mainland Southeast Asia.
The Tran dynasty
By then, the Ly dynasty was already in a state of decline. It was succeeded, after a period of civil strife, by a new dynasty called the Tran, which reigned from 1225 to 1400. For most of their rule, the Tran kings pursued the same policies that had made the country strong under the Ly; the Tran continued to clash with Champa, but they also were able to maintain several periods of peaceful coexistence. The primary challenge to Vietnamese independence, however, came from the north. The Yüan (Mongol) dynasty, which had come to power in China in 1279, sent armies estimated at more than 300,000 soldiers to restore the Red River delta to Chinese rule. The Tran resisted stubbornly and eventually were able to drive out the invaders. The general who commanded the Vietnamese forces, Tran Hung Dao, is still venerated as one of the great heroes of Vietnamese history.
The drain of these wars on Vietnam's resources, together with the declining vigor of its rulers, brought on a deep economic and social crisis and the overthrow of the Tran dynasty in 1400. The deposed Tran ruler appealed to China to help him regain the throne. China, by then ruled by the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), readily complied with the request, and China again invaded Vietnam in 1407. The Ming set up a direct Chinese administration, and these officials resumed the policies of assimilation begun by their imperial predecessors.
By the beginning of the 15th century, the cultural evolution of the Vietnamese people had reached a point at which any attempt to make them Chinese could only strengthen their nationalist sentiments and arouse their determination to throw off the Chinese yoke. Under the leadership of Le Loi, a wealthy landowner in the province of Thanh Hoa south of the Red River delta, a movement of national resistance started in 1418; after a 10-year struggle, the Chinese were forced to evacuate. Le Loi, who ascended the throne shortly thereafter under the name of Le Thai To, became the founder of the third great Vietnamese dynasty, the Later Le (sometimes simply referred to as the Le). Although the Later Le was not actually in power after 1600, it nominally headed the state until 1788.
The Later Le dynasty
Like the better rulers of the Ly and Tran dynasties, Le Thai To and some of his successors introduced many reforms. They gave Vietnam the most advanced legal code in Southeast Asia; promoted art, literature, and education; advanced agriculture; protected communal lands against the greed of large landowners; and even enforced a general redistribution of land among the entire population at the expense of the large landowners. The problem of the landless remained acute, however, because of population increases and the limited amount of available land in the north. The lack of land was one of the reasons the Le dynasty pursued a policy of territorial expansion, and it was a chief motive behind their efforts to drive the Chams from the small but fertile deltas to the south. Most of Champa was conquered in 1471 under the leadership of Le Thanh Tong (ruled 1460-97). Soldiers in the advancing Vietnamese army were settled in newly established villages south from the vicinity of Da Nang to the neighborhood of Nha Trang, in what became the first great Vietnamese push into the south. The elimination of Champa was followed by incursions into the Cambodian territory of the Mekong delta, which the declining Khmer empire no longer was able to defend. Saigon became Vietnamese shortly before 1700, and the rest of the south followed during the next 60 years. With the exception of the southern province of Soc Trang, which was not annexed until 1840, Vietnam had reached its present size by 1757.
This extension of Vietnam to a length of some 1,000 miles altered the historical evolution of the state: up to that point, Vietnam's chief characteristic had been the existence of a strong central power at the head of a unified administration. The country subsequently was divided twice, and its partitioned governments were at war with each other for decades.
The first and shorter division of the country occurred soon after the elimination of Champa. The governor of Hanoi, Mac Dang Dung, made himself master of Vietnam in 1527. The deposed Le rulers and the generals loyal to them regained control of the lands south of the Red River delta in 1545, but only after nearly 50 years of civil war could they reconquer Hanoi and the north.
Of much longer duration and greater historical significance was the second division of Vietnam, which occurred about 1620, when the noble Nguyen family, who had governed the country's growing southern provinces from Hue since 1558, rejected Hanoi's suzerainty. In Hanoi the Le monarchs were rulers in name only after the country was reunited following its first division; all real power was in the hands of the Trinh family, who had made themselves hereditary princes in charge of the government. For 50 years the Trinh rulers tried in vain to regain control of the southern half of the country by military means. The failure of their last campaign in 1673 was followed by a 100-year truce, during which both the Nguyen and the Trinh paid lip service to Vietnamese unity under the Le dynasty but maintained separate governments over the two halves of the country.
National unity was reestablished only after a 30-year period of revolution, political chaos, and civil war (1772-1802). Although the revolution started in the south, it was directed against the ruling houses of both south and north. It was led by three brothers, whose name in history--Tay Son--was that of their native village. The Tay Sons overthrew the southern regime in 1777 and killed the ruling family. While the Tay Sons waged war against the north, one member of the southern royal family--Nguyen Anh, who had escaped the massacre--regained control of Saigon and the deep south in 1778, but he was driven out again by the Tay Sons in 1783. When the Tay Sons also defeated the Trinh in 1786 and occupied Hanoi, Vietnam was briefly reunited under Tay Son rule. In 1788 the Chinese tried to exploit the crisis in Vietnam, but the Tay Son rulers--who had abolished the Later Le dynasty--were able to defeat the Chinese invaders. During that same year, however, Nguyen Anh succeeded, with French military assistance, in occupying Saigon and the Mekong delta. In a series of campaigns that lasted 14 years, Nguyen Anh defeated the Tay Sons and gained control of the entire country. When Hue and Hanoi fell to his armies in 1802, he proclaimed himself emperor, under the name Gia Long, of a reunited Vietnam.
The rule of Gia Long and his successors until the conquest of Vietnam by France in the late 19th century brought no innovations in the organization of the state, the basic character of which already had been firmly established by the Ly emperors during the 11th century. The Ly had successfully fought the revival of a local feudalism, which was rooted in the powers exercised by the tribal chiefs before the coming of the Chinese. From the 11th century on, Vietnam remained a centralized state headed by a monarch whose absolute powers were said to derive from a mandate from heaven--one aspect of the thoroughly Confucian character of the Vietnamese state. The Ly established a fixed hierarchy of state officials that followed the Chinese model; it consisted of nine degrees of civil and military mandarins who were appointed by the emperor and were responsible to only him. All mandarins--those at the very top at the imperial court as well as those in the lowest ranks of the provincial and local administration--were recruited in only one way: through civil service examinations taken after years of study. As a rule, only the wealthy could spend the time required for these studies. Nevertheless, except in periods of dynastic decline when offices sometimes were for sale, the road to positions of power was through scholarship, not wealth.
The concept of a division of powers was alien to the precolonial rulers. The emperor, with the help of high court mandarins, was not only the supreme lawmaker and head of all civil and military institutions but also the dispenser of justice in both criminal and civil cases, and he delegated his powers to the hierarchy of mandarins in the provinces and villages. Even public functions of a religious character were the sole prerogative of the emperor and his representatives in the lower levels of the administration. No military caste ever exercised control over the state, no religious hierarchy existed outside the mandarins, and no aristocracy with political influence was allowed to arise. Titles of nobility, bestowed as honors, were not hereditary.
The economic policies of the great Vietnamese dynasties also favored the maintenance of imperial and mandarin power. Through the 900 years of independence between Chinese domination and French colonial rule, the country's economy remained almost exclusively agricultural. Artisan and fishing villages existed, and there was some mining; but the mass of people were engaged in the cultivation of rice, and neither national nor international trade was systematically promoted. No property-owning middle class of merchants ever threatened the authority of the scholar mandarins, and the periodically rising power of great landowners was diminished from time to time through the redistribution of land. Gia Long and his successor, Minh Mang, actually abolished all huge landholdings during the first half of the 19th century. Theoretically, the emperor owned all the land, and it was by imperial decree that the settlers on newly conquered territories received their plots in the villages that sprang up south from the Red River delta to the Mekong delta.
Vietnam's rigid absolutism was limited to a certain extent by the Confucian concept that held the family to be the basic unit of civilized society; submission to the authority of the family head thus was the foremost moral obligation of every citizen. The autocratic character of society also was eased slightly by the limited authority granted to the village administration, whose purely local affairs were handled by a council of notables elected, as a rule, from the more prosperous or otherwise prominent citizens. Among the duties of these notables were the enforcement of law, the conscription of army and forced-labor recruits, and the assessment of taxes. Next to devotion to family, loyalty to the village was traditionally the first duty of every Vietnamese.
In 1516 Portuguese adventurers arriving by sea inaugurated the era of Western penetration into Vietnam. They were followed in 1527 by visiting Dominican missionaries, and eight years later a Portuguese port and trading center was established at Faifo (modern Hoi An), south of present-day Da Nang. More Portuguese missionaries arrived later in the 16th century, and they were followed by other Europeans. The best-known of these was the French Jesuit missionary Alexandre de Rhodes, who completed a transcription of the Vietnamese language into roman script that later was adopted by modern Vietnamese as their official writing system, quoc ngu ("national language").
By the end of the 17th century, however, the two rival Vietnamese states had lost interest in maintaining relations with European countries; the only window left open to the West was at Faifo, where the Portuguese retained a trading mission. For decades the French had tried without success to retain some influence in the country. Only at the end of the 18th century was a missionary named Pigneau de Béhaine able to restore a French presence by assisting Nguyen Anh in wresting control of the country from the Tay Sons.
Upon becoming emperor, however, Nguyen Anh (now Gia Long) did not favor Christianity. Under his strongly anti-Western successor, Minh Mang (ruled 1820-41), all French advisers were dismissed, while seven French missionaries and an unknown number of Vietnamese Christians were executed. After 1840 French Roman Catholic interests openly demanded military intervention to prevent the persecution of missionaries. In 1847 the French took reprisals against Vietnam for expelling additional missionaries, but 10 years passed before Paris prepared a military expedition against Vietnam.
The decision to invade Vietnam was made by Napoleon III in July 1857. It was the result not only of missionary propaganda but also, after 1850, of the upsurge of French capitalism, which generated the colonial concept of a need for overseas markets and the collateral request for a larger French share in Asian territories conquered by the West. The naval commander in East Asia, Rigault de Genouilly, long an advocate of French military action against Vietnam, was ordered to attack the harbor and city of Tourane (modern Da Nang) and to turn it into a French military base. Genouilly arrived at Tourane in August 1858 with 14 vessels and 2,500 men; the French stormed the harbor defenses on September 1 and occupied the town a day later. Genouilly soon recognized, however, that he could make no further progress around Tourane and decided to attack Saigon. Leaving a small garrison behind to hold Tourane, he sailed southward in February 1859 and seized Saigon two weeks later.
Vietnamese resistance prevented the French from advancing beyond Saigon, and it took French troops, under new command, until 1861 to occupy the three adjacent provinces. The Vietnamese, unable to mount effective resistance to the invaders and their modern weapons, concluded a peace treaty with France in June 1862, which ceded the conquered territories to the latter. Five years later additional territories in the south were placed under French rule. The entire colony was named Cochinchina.
It had taken the French slightly more than eight years to make themselves masters of Cochinchina (a protectorate already had been imposed on Cambodia in 1863). It took them 16 more years to extend their control over the rest of the country. They made a first attempt to enter the Red River delta in 1873, after a French naval officer and explorer named Francis Garnier had shown, in a hazardous expedition, that the Mekong River could not serve as a trade route into southwestern China. Garnier had some support from the French governor of Cochinchina, but when he was killed in a battle with Chinese pirates near Hanoi, the attempt to conquer the north collapsed.
Within a decade, France had returned to the challenge. In April 1882, with the blessing of Paris, the administration at Saigon sent a force of 250 men to Hanoi under Captain Henri Rivière. When Rivière was killed in a skirmish, Paris moved to impose its rule by force over the entire Red River delta. In August 1883 the Vietnamese court signed a treaty that turned northern Vietnam (named Tonkin by the French) and central Vietnam (named Annam, based on an early Chinese name for the region) into French protectorates. Ten years later the French annexed Laos and added it to the so-called Indochinese Union, which the French created in 1887. The union consisted of the colony of Cochinchina and the four protectorates of Annam, Tonkin, Cambodia, and Laos.
The French now moved to impose a Western-style administration on their colonial territories and to open them to economic exploitation. Under Governor-General Paul Doumer, who arrived in 1897, French rule was imposed directly on all levels of administration, leaving the Vietnamese bureaucracy without a trace of real power. Even Vietnamese emperors were deposed at will and replaced by others willing to serve the French. All important positions within the bureaucracy were staffed with officials imported from France; even in the 1930s, after several periods of reforms and concessions to local nationalist sentiment, Vietnamese officials were employed only in minor positions and at very low salaries, and the country was still administered along the lines laid down by Doumer.
Doumer's economic and social policies also determined, for the entire period of French rule, the development of French Indochina, as the colony became known in the 20th century. The railroads, highways, harbors, bridges, canals, and other public works built by the French were almost all started under Doumer, whose aim was a rapid and systematic exploitation for the benefit of France of Indochina's potential wealth; Vietnam was to become a source of valuable raw materials and a market for tariff-protected goods of French industries. The exploitation of natural resources for direct export was the chief purpose of all French investments, with rice, coal, rare minerals, and later also rubber as the main products. Doumer and his successors up to the eve of World War II were not interested in promoting industry, the development of which was limited to the production of goods for immediate local consumption. Among these industries--located chiefly at Saigon, Hanoi, and Haiphong--were breweries, distilleries, small sugar refineries, rice and paper mills, and glass and cement factories. The greatest industrial establishment was a textile factory at Nam Dinh, which employed more than 5,000 workers. The total number of workers employed by all industries and mines in Vietnam was 100,000 in 1930. Because the aim of all investments was not the systematic economic development of the colony but the attainment of immediate high returns for investors, only a small fraction of the profits was reinvested.
Whatever economic progress Vietnam made under the French after 1900 benefited only the French and the small class of rich Vietnamese created by the colonial regime. The masses of the Vietnamese people were deprived of such benefits by the social policies inaugurated by Doumer and maintained even by his more liberal successors, such as Paul Beau (1902-07), Albert Sarraut (1911-14 and 1917-19), and Alexandre Varenne (1925-28). Through the construction of irrigation works, chiefly in the Mekong delta, the area of land devoted to rice cultivation quadrupled between 1880 and 1930. During the same period, however, the individual peasant's rice consumption decreased without the substitution of other foods. The new lands were not distributed among the landless and the peasants but were sold to the highest bidder or given away at nominal prices to Vietnamese collaborators and French speculators. These policies created a new class of Vietnamese landlords and a class of landless tenants who worked the fields of the landlords for rents of up to 60 percent of the crop, which was sold by the landlords at the Saigon export market. The mounting export figures for rice resulted not only from the increase in cultivable land but also from the mounting degree of peasant exploitation.
The peasants who owned their land were rarely better off than the landless tenants. The peasants' share of the price of rice sold at the Saigon export market was less than 25 percent. Peasants continually lost their land to the large owners because they were unable to repay loans given them by the landlords and other moneylenders at exorbitant interest rates. As a result, the large landowners of Cochinchina (less than 3 percent of the total number of landowners) owned 45 percent of the land, while the small peasants (who accounted for about 70 percent of the owners) owned only about 15 percent of the land. The number of landless families in Vietnam before World War II was estimated at half of the population.
The peasants' share of the crop after the landlords, the moneylenders, and the middlemen (mostly Chinese) between producer and exporter had taken their share was still more drastically reduced by the direct and indirect taxes the French had imposed to finance their ambitious program of public works. Other ways of making the Vietnamese pay for the projects undertaken for the benefit of the French were the recruitment of forced labor for public works and the absence of any protection against exploitation in the mines and rubber plantations, although the scandalous working conditions, the low salaries, and the lack of medical care were frequently attacked in the French Chamber of Deputies in Paris. The mild social legislation decreed in the late 1920s was never adequately enforced.
Apologists for the colonial regime claimed that French rule led to vast improvements in medical care, education, transport, and communications. The statistics kept by the French, however, appear to cast doubt on such assertions. In 1939, for example, no more than 15 percent of all school-age children received any kind of schooling, and about 80 percent of the population was illiterate, in contrast to precolonial times when the majority of the people possessed some degree of literacy. With its more than 20,000,000 inhabitants in 1939, Vietnam had but one university, with fewer than 700 students. Only a small number of Vietnamese children were admitted to the lycées (secondary schools) for the children of the French. Medical care was well organized for the French in the cities, but in 1939 there were only 2 physicians for every 100,000 Vietnamese, compared with 76 per 100,000 in Japan and 25 in the Philippines.
Two other aspects of French colonial policy are significant when considering the attitude of the Vietnamese people, especially their educated minority, toward the colonial regime: one was the absence of any kind of civil liberties for the native population, and the other was the exclusion of the Vietnamese from the modern sector of the economy, especially industry and trade. Not only were rubber plantations, mines, and industrial enterprises in foreign hands--French, where the business was substantial, and Chinese on the lower levels--but all other business was as well, from local trade to the great export-import houses. The social consequence of this policy was that, apart from the landlords, no property-owning indigenous middle class developed in colonial Vietnam. Thus, capitalism appeared to the Vietnamese to be a product of foreign rule, a fact that, together with the lack of any Vietnamese participation in government, profoundly influenced the nature and orientation of the national resistance movements.
The anticolonial movement in Vietnam can be said to have started with the establishment of French rule. Many local officials of Cochinchina refused to collaborate with the French. Some led guerrilla groups, composed of the remnants of the defeated armies, in attacks on French outposts. A much broader resistance movement developed in Annam in 1885, led by the great scholar Phan Dinh Phung, whose rebellion collapsed only after his death in 1895.
The main characteristic of the national movement during this first phase of resistance, however, was its political orientation toward the past. Filled with ideas of precolonial Vietnam, its leaders wanted to be rid of the French in order to reestablish the old imperial order. Because this aspiration could have little meaning for the generation that came to maturity after 1900, this first stage of anticolonial resistance did not survive the death of its leader.
A new national movement arose in the early 20th century. Its most prominent spokesman was Phan Boi Chau, with whose rise the old traditionalist opposition gave way to a modern nationalist leadership that rejected French rule but not Western ideas, science, and technology. In 1905 Chau went to Japan. His plan, mildly encouraged by some Japanese statesmen, was to free Vietnam with Japanese help. Chau smuggled hundreds of young Vietnamese into Japan, where they studied the sciences and underwent training for clandestine organization, political propaganda, and terrorist action. Inspired by Chau's effective writings, nationalist intellectuals in Hanoi opened the Free School of Tonkin in 1907, which soon became a center of anti-French agitation and consequently was suppressed after a few months. Also, under the inspiration and guidance of Chau's followers, mass demonstrations demanding a reduction of high taxes took place in many cities in 1908. Hundreds of demonstrators and suspected organizers were arrested--some were condemned to death, while others were sent to Poulo Condore (Con Son) Island in the South China Sea, which the French turned into a penal camp for Vietnamese nationalists.
Phan Boi Chau went to China in 1910, where a revolution had broken out against the Ch'ing (Manchu) dynasty. There he set up a republican government-in-exile to attract the support of nationalist groups. After the French arranged his arrest and imprisonment in China (1914-17), however, his movement began to decline. In 1925 Chau was seized by French agents in Shanghai and brought back to Vietnam for trial; he died under house arrest in 1940.
After World War I the movement for national liberation intensified. A number of prominent intellectuals pursued the hope of obtaining political concessions from the colonial regime through collaboration with the French. The failure of such reformist efforts led to a revival of clandestine and revolutionary groups, especially in Annam and Tonkin; among these was the Vietnamese Nationalist Party (Viet Nam Quoc Dan Dang, founded in 1927 and usually referred to as the VNQDD). The VNQDD preached terrorist action and penetrated the garrisons of indigenous troops with a plan to oust the French in a military uprising. On the night of Feb. 9-10, 1930, the troops of only one garrison in Tonkin killed their French officers, but they were overwhelmed a day later and summarily executed. A wave of repression followed that took hundreds of lives and sent thousands to prison camps. The VNQDD was virtually destroyed, and for the next 15 years it existed mainly as a group of exiles in China supported by the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang).
For yet another reason, the year 1930 was an important one in the history of Vietnam. Five years earlier, a new figure, destined to become the most prominent leader in the national movement, had appeared on the scene as an exiled revolutionary in South China. He was Nguyen Ai Quoc, better known by his later pseudonym of Ho Chi Minh. In June 1925 Ho Chi Minh founded the Revolutionary Youth League of Vietnam, the predecessor of the Indochinese Communist Party.
Ho Chi Minh had left Vietnam as a young seaman in 1911 and traveled widely before settling in Paris in 1917. He joined the Communist Party of France in 1920 and later spent several years in Moscow and China in the service of the international communist movement. After making his Revolutionary Youth League the most influential of all clandestine resistance groups, he succeeded in early 1930 in forming the Vietnamese Communist Party--from late 1930 called the Indochinese Communist Party--from a number of competing communist organizations. In May 1930 the communists exploited conditions of near starvation over large areas of central Vietnam by staging a broad peasant uprising, during which numerous Vietnamese officials and many landlords were killed, and "Soviet" administrations were set up in several provinces of Annam. It took the French until the spring of 1931 to suppress this movement and, in an unparalleled wave of terror, to reestablish their own control.
Unlike the dispersed and disoriented leadership of the VNQDD and some smaller nationalist groups, the Indochinese Communist Party recovered quickly from the setback of 1931, relying on cadres trained in the Soviet Union and China. After 1936, when the French extended some political freedoms to the colonies, the party skillfully exploited all opportunities for the creation of legal front organizations, through which its influence on intellectuals, workers, and peasants was increased. When political freedoms were again curtailed at the outbreak of World War II, the Communist Party, now a well-disciplined organization, was forced back into hiding.
World War II and independence
For five years during World War II, Indochina was a French-administered possession of Japan. On Sept. 22, 1940, Jean Decoux, the French governor-general appointed by the Vichy government after the fall of France, concluded an agreement with the Japanese that permitted the stationing of 30,000 Japanese troops in Indochina and the use of all major Vietnamese airports by the Japanese military. The agreement made Indochina the most important staging area for all Japanese military operations in Southeast Asia. The French administration cooperated with the Japanese occupation forces and was ousted only toward the end of the war (in March 1945), when the Japanese began to fear that the French forces might turn against them as defeat approached. After the French had been disarmed, Bao Dai, the last French-appointed emperor of Vietnam, was allowed to proclaim the independence of his country and to appoint a Vietnamese national government at Hue, but all real power remained in the hands of the Japanese military commanders.
Meanwhile, in May 1941, at Ho Chi Minh's urging, the Communist Party formed a broad nationalist alliance under its leadership called the League for the Independence of Vietnam, which subsequently became known as the Viet Minh. After a short period in jail, Ho was released by the Chinese and began to cooperate with Allied forces by providing information on Japanese troop movements in Indochina. At the same time, he sought recognition of the Viet Minh as the legitimate representative of Vietnamese nationalist aspirations. When the Japanese surrendered in August 1945, the communist-led Viet Minh ordered a general uprising, and, with no one organized to oppose them, they were able to seize power in Hanoi. Bao Dai, the Vietnamese emperor, abdicated a few days later and declared his fealty to the newly proclaimed Democratic Republic of Vietnam.
Clearly the Communist Party had gained the upper hand in its struggle to outmaneuver its disorganized rivals, such as the noncommunist VNQDD. The French, however, were determined to restore their own colonial presence in Indochina and, with the aid of British occupation forces, seized control of Cochinchina. Thus, at the beginning of 1946, there were two Vietnams: a communist north and a noncommunist south.
The First Indochina War
Negotiations between the French and Ho Chi Minh led to an agreement in March 1946 that appeared to promise a peaceful solution. Under the agreement France would recognize the Viet Minh government and give Vietnam the status of a free state within the French Union. French troops were to remain in Vietnam, but they would be withdrawn progressively over five years. For a period in early 1946 the French cooperated with Ho Chi Minh as he consolidated the Viet Minh's dominance over other nationalist groups, in particular those politicians who were backed by the Chinese Nationalist Party.
Despite tactical cooperation between the French and the Viet Minh, their policies were irreconcilable: the French aimed to reestablish colonial rule, while Hanoi wanted total independence. French intentions were revealed in the decision of Georges-Thierry d'Argenlieu, the high commissioner for Indochina, to proclaim Cochinchina an autonomous republic in June 1946. Further negotiations did not resolve the basic differences between the French and the Viet Minh. In late November 1946 French naval vessels bombarded Haiphong, causing several thousand civilian casualties; the subsequent Viet Minh attempt to overwhelm French troops in Hanoi in December generally is considered to be the beginning of the First Indochina War.
Initially confident of victory, the French long ignored the real political cause of the war--the desire of the Vietnamese people, including their anticommunist leaders, to achieve unity and independence for their country. French efforts to deal with this problem were devious and ineffective. The French reunited Cochinchina with the rest of Vietnam in 1949, proclaiming the Associated State of Vietnam, and appointed the former emperor Bao Dai as chief of state. Most nationalists, however, denounced these maneuvers, and leadership in the struggle for independence from the French remained with the Viet Minh.
Meanwhile, the Viet Minh waged an increasingly successful guerrilla war, aided after 1949 by the new communist government of China. The United States, fearful of the spread of communism in Asia, sent large amounts of aid to the French. But the French were shaken by the fall of their garrison at Dien Bien Phu in May 1954 and agreed to negotiate an end to the war at an international conference in Geneva.
The agreements concluded in Geneva in April-July 1954 (collectively called the Geneva Accords), which were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives, provided for a cease-fire and for a temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17º N. All Viet Minh forces were to withdraw north of that line, and all French and Associated State of Vietnam troops were to remain south of it; permission was granted for refugees to move from one zone to the other within a given time limit. An international commission was established, composed of Canadian, Polish, and Indian members under an Indian chairman, to supervise the execution of the agreement.
This agreement left the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in control of only the northern half of the country. The last of the Geneva Accords--called the Final Declaration--provided for elections, supervised by the commission, to be held throughout Vietnam in July 1956 in order to unify the country. Viet Minh leaders appeared certain to win these elections, and the United States and South Vietnam would not approve or sign the Final Declaration; elections were never held.
The two Vietnams now began to reconstruct their war-ravaged country. With assistance from the Soviet Union and China, the Hanoi government in the north embarked on an ambitious program of socialist industrialization; they also began to collectivize agriculture in earnest in 1958. In the south a new government appointed by Bao Dai began to build a new country. Ngo Dinh Diem, a Roman Catholic, was named prime minister and succeeded with American support in stabilizing the anticommunist regime in Saigon. He eliminated pro-French elements in the military and abolished the local autonomy of several religious-political groups. Then, in a government-controlled referendum in October 1955, Diem removed Bao Dai as chief of state and made himself president of the Republic of Vietnam.
Diem's early success in consolidating power did not result in concrete political and economic achievements. Plans for land reform were sabotaged by entrenched interests. With the financial backing of the United States, the regime's chief energies were directed toward building up the military and a variety of intelligence and security forces to counter the still-influential Viet Minh. Totalitarian methods were directed against all who were regarded as opponents, and the favoritism shown to Roman Catholics alienated the majority Buddhist population. Loyalty to the president and his family was made a paramount duty, and Diem's brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu, founded an elitist party to clandestinely spy on officials, army officers, and prominent local citizens. Diem also refused to participate in the all-Vietnamese elections described in the Final Declaration. With support from the north, communist-led forces--popularly called the Viet Cong--launched an insurgency movement to seize power and reunify the country. The insurrection appeared close to succeeding, when Diem's army overthrew him in November 1963. Diem and his brother Nhu were killed in the coup.
The government that seized power after Diem's ouster, however, was no more effective than its predecessor. A period of political instability followed, until the military firmly seized control in June 1965 under Nguyen Cao Ky. The militant Buddhists who had helped overthrow Diem strongly opposed Ky's government, but he was able to break their resistance. Civil liberties were restricted, political opponents--denounced as neutralists or pro-communists--were imprisoned, and political parties were allowed to operate only if they did not openly criticize government policy. The character of the regime remained largely unchanged after the presidential elections in September 1967, which led to the election of General Nguyen Van Thieu as president.
No less evident than the oppressive nature of the Saigon regime was its inability to cope with the Viet Cong. Aided by a steady infiltration of weapons and advisers from the north, the fighting strength of the insurgent movement grew from about 30,000 men in 1963 to about 150,000 in 1965 when, in the opinion of many American intelligence analysts, the survival of the Saigon regime was seriously threatened. In addition, the political opposition in the south to Saigon became much more organized. The National Front for the Liberation of the South, popularly called the National Liberation Front (NLF), had been organized in late 1960; within four years it had a huge following.
Until 1960 the United States had supported the Saigon regime and its army only with military equipment, financial aid, and, as permitted by the Geneva Accords, 700 advisers for training the army. The number of advisers had increased to 17,000 by the end of 1963, and they were joined by an increasing number of American helicopter pilots. All this assistance, however, proved insufficient to halt the advance of the Viet Cong, and in February 1965 U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam, hoping to prevent further infiltration of arms and troops into the south. Four weeks after the bombing began, the United States started sending troops into the south. By July the number of U.S. troops had reached 75,000; it continued to climb until it stood at more than 500,000 early in 1968. Fighting beside the Americans were some 600,000 regular South Vietnamese troops and regional and self-defense forces, as well as smaller contingents from South Korea, Thailand, Australia, and New Zealand.
Three years of intensive bombing of the north and fighting in the south, however, did not weaken the will and strength of the Viet Cong and their allies from the north. Infiltration of personnel and supplies down the famous Ho Chi Minh Trail continued at an escalated level, and regular troops from the north--now estimated at more than 100,000--played a growing role in the war. The continuing strength of the insurgent forces became evident in the so-called Tet Offensive that began in late January 1968, during which the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese attacked more than 100 cities and military bases, holding on to some for several weeks. After that, a growing conviction in the U.S. government that continuing the war at the current levels was no longer politically acceptable led President Johnson to order a restriction of the bombing in the north. This decision opened the way for U.S. negotiations with Hanoi, which began in Paris in May 1968. After the bombing was halted over the entire north in November 1968, the Paris talks were enlarged to include representatives of the NLF and the Saigon regime.
The war continued under a new American president, Richard M. Nixon. Nixon began to withdraw U.S. troops gradually, but public opposition to the war escalated after he ordered attacks on the Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos and Viet Cong sanctuaries inside Cambodia. In the meantime, the peace talks went on in Paris.
Finally, in January 1973 a peace treaty was signed by the United States and all three Vietnamese parties. It provided for the complete withdrawal of U.S. troops within 60 days and created a political process for the peaceful resolution of the conflict in the south. Nothing was said, however, about the presence of more than 100,000 North Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. The signing of the Paris Agreement did not bring an end to the fighting in Vietnam. The Saigon regime made a determined effort to eliminate the communist forces remaining in the south, while northern leaders continued to strengthen their own military forces in preparation for a possible future confrontation. By late 1974 Hanoi had decided that victory could be achieved only through armed struggle, and early the next year North Vietnamese troops launched a major offensive against the south. Saigon's forces retreated in panic and disorder, and President Thieu ordered the abandonment of several northern provinces. Thieu's effort to stabilize the situation was too late, however, and on April 30, 1975, the communists entered Saigon in triumph. The Second Indochina War was finally at an end.
Following the communist victory, Vietnam remained theoretically divided until July 2, 1976, when the Socialist Republic of Vietnam was officially proclaimed, with its capital at Hanoi. Vietnam at peace faced formidable problems. In the south alone, millions of people had been made homeless by the war, and more than one-seventh of the population had been killed or wounded; the costs in the north were probably as high or higher. Plans to reconstruct the country called for the expansion of industry in the north and of agriculture in the south. Within two years of the communist victory, however, it became clear that Vietnam would face major difficulties in realizing its goals.
Hanoi had been at war for more than a generation--indeed, Ho Chi Minh had died in 1969--and the bureaucracy was poorly trained to deal with the problems of peacetime economic recovery. The government encountered considerable resistance to its policies, particularly in the huge metropolis of Saigon (renamed Ho Chi Minh City in 1976), where members of the commercial sector--many of whom were ethnic Chinese--sought to avoid cooperating in the new socialist economic measures and resisted assignment to "new economic zones" in the countryside. During the late 1970s the country also suffered major floods and drought that severely reduced food production. When the regime suddenly announced a program calling for the socialization of industry and agriculture in the south in early 1978, hundreds of thousands of people (mainly ethnic Chinese) fled the country on foot or by boat.
These internal difficulties were compounded by problems in foreign affairs. Perhaps unrealistically, the regime decided to pursue plans to form a close alliance with new revolutionary governments in neighboring Laos and Cambodia (Kampuchea). Such plans risked incurring not only the hostility of the United States but also that of China, which had its own interests in those countries. As Sino-Vietnamese relations soured, Hanoi turned to Moscow and signed a treaty of friendship and cooperation with the Soviet Union. In the meantime, relations with the revolutionary Democratic Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) government in Cambodia rapidly deteriorated when it refused Hanoi's offer of a close relationship among the three countries of the Indochinese Peninsula. Savage border fighting culminated in a Vietnamese invasion of Cambodia in December 1978. The Khmer Rouge were dislodged from power, and a pro-Vietnamese government was installed in Phnom Penh.
Khmer Rouge forces now took refuge in isolated areas of the country and began a guerrilla war of resistance against the new government, the latter backed by some 200,000 Vietnamese troops. In the meantime, China launched a brief but fierce punitive invasion along the Sino-Vietnamese border in early 1979 in response to Vietnamese actions in Cambodia. During the month-long war the Chinese destroyed major Vietnamese towns and inflicted heavy damage in the frontier zone, but they also suffered heavy casualties from the Vietnamese defenders.
Vietnam was now nearly isolated in the world. Apart from the protégé regime in Phnom Penh and the government of Laos, which also was heavily dependent on Vietnamese aid for its survival, the country was at odds with the remainder of its regional neighbors. The member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations opposed the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia and joined with China in supporting guerrilla resistance forces represented by the Khmer Rouge and various noncommunist Cambodian groups. An economic trade embargo with Vietnam was imposed by the United States and most other Western countries. Only the Soviet Union and its allies in eastern Europe stood by Vietnam.
Under such severe external pressure, Vietnam suffered continuing economic difficulties. The cost of stationing troops in Cambodia and of maintaining a strong defensive position along the Chinese border was especially heavy. To make matters worse, the regime encountered continuing problems in integrating the southern provinces into a socialist economy. In the early 1980s the government announced a number of reforms to encourage efforts to build up the economy. Then, with the death of veteran party chief Le Duan in 1986 (Le Duan had succeeded Ho Chi Minh as party chief in 1960), the party launched a major program patterned after the Soviet Union's strategy of perestroika (restructuring). Vietnam also offered a number of concessions to bring about a peace settlement in Cambodia.
The results of these changes have been inconclusive. New party leaders have announced their willingness to abandon doctrinaire Marxist-Leninist ideology in order to achieve rapid economic growth, but they have been unwilling to share power with noncommunist elements; a new constitution enacted in 1992, however, was seen as a step toward loosening party control of the government. In the meantime, a final peace settlement in Cambodia has remained elusive. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, Hanoi has improved relations with China, but its full acceptance into the family of nations has yet to be realized.